Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)

In the brain it appears as a tangle of abnormal arteries and veins that usually is present already from birth. When they present symptoms it is via headaches or seizures. In serious cases, the blood vessels rupture, causing bleeding in the brain.

Acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannomas)

Benign tumors that typically arise from the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve. Most common presenting symptoms are unilateral loss of hearing, tinnitus and imbalance.


The term benign is used when describing tumors or growths that do not threaten the health of an individual. Benign is the opposite of malignant.


Is also called internal radiation treatment and involves placing a radiation source in or near the treatment area. It allows very high tumor doses to be achieved while limiting the impact on the surrounding organs.


Uncontrolled, abnormal growth of cells.


Treatment of cancer diseases with the aid of chemicals that eliminate diseased cells.

Computerized tomography (CT)

A radiological method of producing anatomical structures by means of layering, using computer technology.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

A brain ‘pacemaker’ is implanted to stimulate brain activity and block signals that cause unwanted symptoms present in functional neurological disorders, for example tremor.

Electronic brachytherapy

Type of brachytherapy that uses an X-ray tube to induce radiation. It can deliver radiation to the tumor with a high degree of precision whilst minimizing damage to healthy surrounding tissue. Due to the source of radiation used, electronic brachytherapy can be performed in a room with minimal shielding.


Disorder characterized by repeated, sudden disturbances of brain function.


Part of the total radiation dose, delivered at a daily treatment.

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Is an agency of the US Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of for example medical devices.

Functional disorders

Diseases in the central nervous system.

Gamma Knife radiosurgery

Stereotactic radiosurgery with Leksell Gamma Knife.


The most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor. They are usually highly malignant as a large number of tumor cells are reproducing at any given time and are supported by a large network of blood vessels. Glioblastoma often infiltrate with normal healthy brain tissue.

Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT)

Image guided radiation therapy of cancer, where high precision and accuracy is achieved using high resolution three-dimensional X-ray images of the patient’s soft tissues at the time of treatment.

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT)

Intensity modulated radiation therapy of cancer, where instead of being treated with a single, large, uniform beam, the patient is treated with many very small beams; each of which can have a different intensity.


Incidence is the number of new cancer cases arising in a given period in a specified population.


A technique that penetrates the skin, skull, etcetera. The opposite of non-invasive (bloodless).


Elekta’s two Learning and Innovation Centers in Atlanta, USA and in Beijing, China. The LINC:s are state-of-the-art facilities that provide Elekta users and employees with an ideal environment for learning.

Linear accelerator

Equipment for generating and directing ionizing radiation for treatment of cancer.

Magnetoencephalograph (MEG)

Equipment for real time mapping of the function in different parts of the brain, by measuring the magnetic field generated by brain cells activity.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Technology used to visualize and differentiate organs and anatomical structures inside the body. It uses non-ionizing radiation and is thus harmless to the patient.


Refers to cancerous cells that usually have the ability to aggressively spread, invade and destroy tissue. Opposite to benign.


A type of tumor that develops from the meninges, the membrane that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors and are often benign.


Secondary malignant tumors originating from primary cancer tumors in other parts of the body.

Multileaf collimator

An accessory to the linear accelerator, working like an aperture. With a large number of individually adjustable metal leaves, the treatment beam can be shaped to the size and shape of the target volume.


The study of the nervous system and its disorders.


Surgery of the brain or other parts of the central nervous system.


The study of tumor diseases.

Parkinson’s disease

Paralysis, with trembling and shaking as well as muscular rigidity, with a change in movements and posture by the patient.


The prevalence of a particular cancer can be defined as the number of persons in a defined population who have been diagnosed with that type of cancer, and who are still alive at the end of a given year, the survivors. Prevalence of cancers based on cases diagnosed within one, three and five are presented as they are likely to be of relevance to the different stages of cancer therapy, namely, initial treatment (one year), clinical follow up (three years) and cure (five years). Patients who are still alive five years after diagnosis are usually considered cured since the death rates of such patients are similar to those in the general population.

Radiation therapy

Fractionated ionizing radiation treatment of cancer.


Non-invasive surgery in which a high, single dose of precise ionizing radiation replaces surgical instruments.

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

Is a technique that enables a beam to precisely target a tumor in the body and minimizes radiation to normal surrounding tissue.

Stereotactic Radiation Therapy (SRT)

Radiation therapy of cancer, where high precision and accuracy is achieved by delivering the radiation based on an external fixed-coordinate system.


A technique in which a fixed-coordinate system can determine the location of a point by specifying the coordinates in terms of height, depth and laterally.

Trigeminal neuralgia

A disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which carries sensation from your face to your brain. Episodes of severe, stabbing pain affect the cheek, lips, gums, teeth or chin.

Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT)

Dynamic conformal delivery technique in which both collimator leaves and gantry move during radiotherapy.

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